Programless Robotics using stepper motor driver

Descriptions A very low-cost stepper motor driver that has 4 modes of operation. Can be used for excellent robotics application without using any program. 1.Working Mode: Normal Mode 1: S1 start stop button, S2 forward and reverse button, W2 potentiometer speed control. If limit reversal is required, two limit switches can be connected to the P3 pin, and the motor motion shaft is mounted with contacts, so that the motor will reciprocate within the stroke between the two limit switches. 2. Normal Mode 2: S1 forwards the start button, S2 reverses the start button, press any button to stop. W2 potentiometer speed regulation. If the limit stop is required, two limit switches can be connected to the P3 pin, so that the motor will stop moving when it touches the limit switch, and the motor will reverse after the opposite…

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Optical Liquid Level Sensor

One of the very low cost ($4) liquid level sensor with excellent performance. Unlike many liquid level sensors other than ultrasonic require probes to be inserted to the liquid. This causes electrolysis and after few days it stops working properly. Non touch-types Ultrasonic has the disadvantage of getting damaged if accidentally comes in touch with liquid or outdoor use. Presented below an optical sensor-based system that works on the principle of  IR light reflection and refraction through a prism.

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