Submitted below ac load management by Phase angle control using Arduino by delayed triggering to opto-coupler(U3) interfaced triac (U4) for single phase load control using Arduino nano. Proteus file and the code for simulation are available at the bottom. For video watch at down below or use this link
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Circuit Explanation for Phase angle control using Arduino
It uses an Arduino nano for phase angle control which receives zero cross pulses (ZVS) at pin at Pin 2 and delayed output pulses are developed at pin 3. Control is done at A0 through a variable resistor (POT-RV1). A small step down transformer delivers 12 volt ac which is filtered by a bridge rectifier BR1 and then a blocking diode D1 and then filtered by capacitor C1 that feeds a 3 terminal regulator that gives 5 volt duly filtered again by C2 for powering the entire circuit. Function of D1 is very interesting. It separates the pulsating voltage developed by the bride rectifier from the filtered voltage. Because the unfiltered voltage is required for a comparator to generate zero cross pulses.
The unfiltered 12 volt ( available at anode of D1 ) passes through a potential divider R2:R3 to a comparator inverting input pin2 of IC-U1A while its non inverting is held at referenced constant voltage of 0.6 volts being the conventional forward voltage drop of forward biased silicon diode D2 through R1. This results in developing zero cross pulses at pin1 of U1A, 2 times in each cycle of half wave of the pulsating voltage (ie 100 pulses in a second of 50 Hz waveform) which is fed at input pin2 from the potential dividerR2:R3. Using another potential divider R4:R5 , a safer pulsed voltage of less than 4 volts is made for feeding the Arduino pin2 with zero cross pulses so that program starts developing delayed trigging pulses from the start of the wave form. Had we not used the ZCS, arbitrary triggering would have caused false triggering. Variable analog voltage fed from POT RV1 to Arduino executes the program accordingly to develop delayed pulses which is in source mode to feed the opto- coupler pin 1 through R6. On the high voltage side R8,C3 forms a snubber for the triac U4 which is trigger through R7 in combination with opto side diac. Thus load , mains supply, and triac all in series desired control is achieved. Video below. on phase angle control using Arduino.
Proteus simulation file and the code
Alternate way to interface to Arduino
Fundamentals of phase angle control using Arduino
Phase angle controlled AC power, also known as phase angle control or phase control, is a fundamental concept in power electronics and AC circuitry. It involves manipulating the timing of the voltage waveform relative to the current waveform, allowing control over the amount of power delivered to a load.In phase angle control, a thyristor (such as a TRIAC or SCR) is used to control the conduction angle of the AC voltage waveform. By delaying the point at which the voltage is applied to the load within each half-cycle of the AC waveform, the average power delivered to the load can be controlled. This method is commonly used in applications such as dimmer switches for lighting, motor speed control, and heating elements.This is the concept followed in phase angle control using Arduino
By adjusting the firing angle of the thyristor, the amount of power delivered to the load can be increased or decreased, regulating the intensity of the output by phase angle control using Arduino . This is achieved by changing the portion of each AC half-cycle during which the current flows through the load. The concept finds use in various industries to achieve variable speed drives and efficient control of power consumption.However, phase angle control also has its drawbacks. It can introduce harmonics into the AC waveform, leading to distortion and power quality issues. Additionally, since power is controlled by altering the voltage waveform, it may not be suitable for all types of loads, particularly those sensitive to voltage fluctuations.
In conclusion, phase angle controlled AC power is a crucial technique in power electronics, enabling versatile control of power delivery to loads. Its applications range from lighting control to motor speed regulation, but careful consideration must be given to the potential drawbacks and compatibility with different load types.